Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS), called closed sinus surgery, is the preferred functional technique for the treatment of sinus diseases. During the operation, no incision is made in the nasal cavity, instead, access is provided through the nostrils. Thanks to this, the process is completed much easier and painless for the patient. Currently, functional endoscopic sinus surgery operations are performed in a large number of hospitals.
The area around the nose where the sinuses are located is complex on the one hand and narrow on the other. Here, in addition to the tear ducts, extremely critical organs such as the eyes, brain, visual nerves, and carotid artery are located side by side at the same time. Therefore, a competent surgeon is needed for the operation to take place without errors. Closed sinus surgery is performed in anterior skull base injuries, especially in chronic sinus patients, sinus tumors, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks, trauma-related orbital damage or visual nerve compression.
What is Sinus?
Sinuses are the name given to the air spaces inside the bones located around the nose in anatomy. There are 8 sinuses in total, with 4 on the left and right sides. These are the sinuses of the cheek (maxillary), the sinuses located in the back & front between the eyes (ethmoid), the sinuses located in the back-head (sphenoid sinus) and the forehead (frontal) sinuses. Within the sinuses, 0.5 – 1 liter of mucus is produced during the day as a continuation of the nasal mucosa.
If the mucosa area becomes inflamed, this causes an ailment called sinusitis. Infection of the sinus area can occur through the blood, with fractures of the facial bones or with penetrating trauma, or when the inflammation of the teeth spreads here. Treatment of sinusitis is carried out with the use of decongestants, mucolytics, antistamines, steroid nasal sprays, antibiotics or direct steroids. If a solution is not provided, sinus surgery is assisted.
Which Department Deals with Blocked Sinus Surgery (Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery)?
The sinuses are located inside the nasal bones in the body. For a detailed examination and treatment of the area, otolaryngologist' help should be sought. Due to the fact that there is a direct connection with the nose and throat, hospitals' otolaryngology departments deal with this disease and, if necessary, perform all other operations in a complete form, especially closed sinus surgery.
However, the fact that the sinuses are located in a complex area by structure may require working with neurology, eye or brain surgery units for the operation. If left untreated, sinusitis can cause a serious headache and nasal congestion in the patient, as well as cause a larger health problem with the spread of infection to critical organs in the area. Therefore, in order to benefit from early treatment, patients with complaints should be examined by an otolaryngologist.
What is Blocked Sinus Surgery (Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery)?
Blocked sinus surgery (Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery) is carried out by monitoring the area that cannot be seen directly from the monitors with the help of endoscopic tools and using high-precision devices in the meantime. It is performed to eliminate a large number of medical problems, especially chronic sinus inflammation. Frontal head injuries and pressure on the optic nerve in the area are among the other most common causes.
An endoscope is a device with a light at the end and a small camera. The endoscope, which is used in the surgery of a large number of organs such as the stomach, large intestine, esophagus, allows the surgeon to get a clear view. The fact that the sinus canals are located between narrow and not so complex structures brings the functional endoscopic sinus surgery to the fore. It is preferable in cases where drug therapy does not work. Currently, about 200,000 patients undergo closed sinus surgery to eliminate the problem of sinusitis in the United States every year.
How is Blocked Sinus Surgery (Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery) Performed?
During blocked sinus surgery (Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery), general anesthesia is used for the comfort of the patient. The otolaryngologist gets help from advanced devices such as shavers, balloons or navigation, depending on the situation. The answer to the question of how long does closed sinus surgery take varies depending on the level of prevalence of pathology and the number & complexity of procedures to be performed during the same operation.
On average, it may require a period of 15-30 minutes for a single sinus, and the cleaning of all 8 sinuses separately may therefore exceed 2 hours. The surgeon does not make cuts in blocked sinus surgery, but instead monitors the endoscopy that he passes through the nostrils through the monitor and performs his operations in this way. Problems such as aesthetic nose surgery, removal or reduction of nasal flesh, correction of curvature in the nose can also be corrected with functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS).
Blocked Sinus Surgery (Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery)
Blocked sinus surgery (Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery) is performed to open the channels through which the sinus cavities are connected to the nose, to clean inflamed polyps or tissues, to treat concha bullosa and nasal flesh swelling as nasal air cysts, to eliminate problems with accessory ostim (more than 1 emptying hole of the sinus cavities) or abnormal mucous contact areas.
Development of surgical navigation technology, has a positive effect on blocked sinus surgery (Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery). Thanks to this, the operation becomes more reliable, the success rate increases critically, and the duration of the operation is shortened. Blocked sinus surgery is of critical importance in the removal of chronic sinusitis.
What are the Advantages of Blocked Sinus Surgery (Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery)?
Blocked sinus surgery (Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery) is often performed in the field of ENT and solves many health problems of the patient, especially sinusitis. The use of endoscopy allows a detailed view of this extremely narrow area. Not making an incision in the nose also reduces the pain that will occur in the area after the operation and eliminates the risk of scars. Taking a 3D tomography of the area before surgery reduces the margin of error.
Sinusitis, if left untreated, causes severe headaches. Thanks to functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS), the patient completely gets rid of these pains. There is a serious increase in the quality of life, the patient's complaints cease. If the infection is present, it is prevented from spreading to other critical organs in the area. Due to sinusitis, health problems that may occur later are prevented. The patient shows improvement after surgery in about a month.
The Process After Blocked Sinus Surgery (Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery)
Blocked sinus surgery (Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery) is extremely normal to feel nasal congestion in the first 24 or 48 hours after. It is usually discharged on the same day, but depending on the doctor's preferences, you can be under observation in the hospital for 1 day. After the operation, the use of sprays and various medications to clean the inside of the nose should be carried out according to the doctor's recommendations.
During the first 4 to 6 weeks after surgery, the nose is definitely not cleaned by snot. At the same time, it is inconvenient to draw tap water into the nose. It is normal to feel dryness in the nose or the formation of crusts. It is critically important to follow the doctor's instructions for cleaning the nose. The dressing and control times determined by the doctor should not be disrupted. The recovery process varies from 2 to 6 weeks, depending on the patient's condition and the content of the operation.