Thyroid surgery provides the solution of medical problems that occur in the thyroid gland. Although some patients have a direct suspicion of cancer, it is actually unlikely that every thyroid problem will be identified as cancer. It can also be called goiter surgery. The growth of the thyroid gland means goiter, but the two should not be confused. Everyone has a thyroid gland, but no goiter.
Iodine deficiency in the diet, infection, pregnancy, Hashimoto's disease or Graves' disease can lead to the growth of the thyroid gland. It can occur with childbirth, as well as commonly after the age of 40. Symptoms of goiter include a feeling of tightness in the throat, hoarseness , difficulty in swallowing, coughing, shortness of breath, a feeling of swelling that is noticed during contact times such as makeup or shaving. It is possible to achieve a solution to the problem together with thyroid surgery.
What is Thyroid?
The thyroid gland is popularly referred to as both the region dec the neck and the disease. The thyroid gland (laryngea in medical parlance), located in the throat at the bottom of the Adam's apple and in front of the windpipe, resembles the letter H or U, as well as the shape of a butterfly. Among the tasks of the thyroid gland, the production of hormones that regulate the functions of the body is mainly involved. The hormone calcitonin, the hormone T3 (triiodothyronine) & the hormone T4 (thyroxine) are produced, stored and released if necessary through the thyroid gland.
The size of the thyroid is equivalent to a walnut. It has two lobes, left and right, the section in the middle of which is called the isthmus. Hormones in the thyroid gland stimulate organs or systems when they are directly involved in the blood. If the thyroid gland, which has a great responsibility for the entire body, does not perform its functions, serious health problems may occur. That is why early diagnosis and treatment are extremely critical. On the side of the thyroid gland, the arteries known as the jugular vein are located.
Which Department Deals with the Thyroid?
The department of internal medicine deals with thyroid disorders. If necessary, the doctor receives support from general surgery department. Diagnosis of thyroid occurs in two ways, it is noticed by the patient or noticed by the doctor. When diagnosing, the patient bases the problems such as swelling in the neck area, weakness, excessive intolerance to cold or heat, rapid irritability, and trembling in the hands. A doctor, on the other hand, makes a diagnosis thanks to the detection of a nodule or lymph node that he noticed during the examination.
The thyroid gland does not grow enough to be handled under normal conditions. Contact your doctor as soon as you notice an abnormality in your thyroid located just in front of the windpipe. A low or increase in thyroid hormones observed in blood tests is one of the symptoms. First of all, drug methods are tried. In new cases, iodine consumption is supported and nutritional recommendations are given by the doctor. Depending on the patient's condition, the doctor recommends surgery if the treatment does not work.
What is Thyroid Surgery?
In addition to cancer, there are basically two elements between causes of thyroid surgery ; the thyroid glands may be overworked or the hyperthyroid cannot be corrected with treatment and medication. Thyroid nodules that are not removed by surgery can cause cancer later. That is why early diagnosis and treatment are extremely critical. Thyroid surgery can be completed without any problems with the advancing technology today.
The presence of devices that show the vocal nerve in operating rooms, the fact that an experienced endocrine surgeon manages the process greatly benefits. Determining the location of the nerves prevents them from being damaged.
How is Thyroid Surgery Performed?
The question of how is thyroid surgery performed is often asked by those who are going to undergo the operation. The operation begins with an incision of about 4 – 5 centimeters, which is thrown to the front of the neck. Then the thin muscles located in the lower part of the skin november opened, which provides access to the thyroid gland. By its shape, the thyroid gland consists of two wings, like a butterfly. The surgeon carefully separates the left and then the right lobe through the trachea. In the posterior part of the thyroid gland, nerves leading to the vocal cords are located.
It is necessary to avoid damage to the nerves so that hoarseness does not occur. The surgeon does not dislodge the parathyroid glands, which are again located in the posterior part of the thyroid gland. The parathyroid glands are the size of rice. In addition, in case the nodules are malignant, the entire thyroid gland should be removed. During the operation, the patient remains under general anesthesia. If the entire thyroid gland is removed, the patient uses 1 tablet of the drug every day for the rest of his life.
Thyroid surgery is usually completed within a range of 1.5 hours to 2 hours. Depending on the patient's condition and the doctor's preferences, it is often enough to stay under observation for 1 night. Before the operation, the patient's hormone levels are checked. If the hormone level is too high, it must first be lowered, so an examination of an internal medicine or endocrinology specialist is provided. After the normalization of the hormone level, the patient should wait preferably 1 week In some cases, the normalization process can take up to 1 month.
When the operation is decided, the anesthesiologist examines the patient. From 24 the night before thyroid surgery, the patient should not eat and not even drink water. After thyroid surgery, which can be performed on or off, temporary hoarseness or low calcium may be observed. A decrease in thyroid hormone with the removal of the thyroid gland can cause a headache in the patient. Therefore, it is extremely important to follow the doctor's advice.
What Are the Advantages of Thyroid Surgery?
Thyroid surgery has a number of advantages. Problems in the thyroid gland are solved without progression. Advanced cases of thyroid cancer can cause a number of medical problems, especially malignant cancer or poor quality of life. However, the swelling of the thyroid gland creates an unaesthetic image in the neck area. The removal of the thyroid gland with the operation and the removal of swelling eliminate this undesirable appearance.
With thyroid surgery, abnormalities in the hormones secreted in the body disappear. This condition allows both organs and systems to function smoothly and not to decrease the quality of life. Thyroid surgery performed by a specialist surgeon in his or her field ends all the complaints of the patient, as well as prevents future ailments. For early detection, it is extremely important to contact the doctor within a short time.
The Process After Thyroid Surgery
After thyroid surgery, the patient is discharged within 2 or 3 days at most. No scarring occurs in the neck area, but painful swallowing may occur in the first few days. The doctor will recommend special lozenges for the relief of this condition. After the operation, a drain may be located near the neck area. The reason for the drain is to vacuum any leaks that may occur at the site of the operation and thus ensure that they come out. The next day, the drain is removed without problems.
After the thyroid surgery is completed, the patient comes to him within a few hours, can talk directly and take food by mouth. It is possible for the patient to get out of bed, walk or move his neck. Although the amount of pain varies depending on the techniques used and the patient's condition, there is no severe pain condition. after 1 week, the doctor will check up, if any, complaints will be reported. After the blood tests are performed, the dose of thyroid medication to be given is adjusted. In the following process, routine follow-up is provided with 6-month periods.